UIS Commission on Physical Chemistry
and Hydrogeology of Karst
Workshop of UIS Commission on Physical Chemistry and Hydrogeology
of Karst on:
“Cave Climate and Paleoclimate- Best Record
of the Global Change”
Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 24- 27 September 2002
Location and climate
is situated in the Southeastern part of the Balkan Peninsula. The
country’s population is 8.2 million and a territory of 110,912 sq.km,
bordering Greece and Turkey to the South, Republic of Macedonia and
Yugoslavia to the West. The river Danube separates it from Romania
to the North. Its natural eastern border is the Black Sea. Bulgaria
ranks fifteenth in size among the European countries. The climate
is Continental - Mediterranean.
Stara Zagora is close enough and easily accessible by car from most
European countries. Bus transportation will be arranged from Sofia
city to St. Zagora on 23th and 24th September. Stara Zagora can be
reached from Sofia by bus or train for 5$ and Starozagorsky Mineralni
Bani (where is located the conference site and hotel) by bus for 0.5
$ from St. Zagora.
1. Pirin mountain karst (one of the world’s tickess, over 2000
2. Paleovolcanic karst of East Rodopa Mts.
3. Over 10 mountains + Black Sea in 111 000 sq. km.
4. Extremely high diversity of geological settings and climate
in very small territory
5. Very interesting Archeological and Archeoastronomical findings
and rock art in karst terrains.
6. Extremely friendly, intelligent and nice local population
7. Very cheep, rich, tasty and original kitchen
Temperature vary from 12- 30 deg. C.
Usually nice and dry Access Most major air companies fly to Sofia
Bulgaria’s currency is Lev, plural Leva. One Lev is made
up of 100 stotinki. EURO has been introduced in the country as an
official European currency as of 1 January 2002.
1 USD = 2.219 Leva
1 CHF = 1.33577 Leva
1 GBP = 3.1566 Leva
1 EUR = 1.95583 Leva
GMT +2; April - September GMT +3
In Bulgaria only cash is reliable way
of payment. Checks require 1-month clearance time. Credit cards are
accepted only in most expensive hotels. Do not rely on them!!!
Passport and Visa
Valid passports are required and an entry visa issued by an embassy
or a consular of the Republic of Bulgaria. Citizens from Schengen
countries and the USA are not required to hold an entry visa for a
stay up to 90 calendar days. This applies also to nationals from countries
with visa waiver agreements with Bulgaria. Please check with the nearest
Bulgarian Embassy or Consular office.
Major foreign airline companies and Bulgarian Balkan Airlines link
the country with the five continents. Some world air distances to
Sofia from: London (3 hours), Moscow (2 hours), New York (14 hours)
Paris (3 hours), Rome (2 hours), Tokyo (23 hours), Zurich (2 hours).
is one of the key sectors in Bulgaria due to the specific nature and
climate of the country. Bulgaria offers diverse forms of tourism as
health tourism, hunting and fishing, nautical tourism and cruising,
congress tourism, etc. The abundance of mineral water springs in the
interior of the country and near the sea and mountain resorts creates
excellent conditions for the development of balneological tourism.
The unique cultural and historical monuments, including the ones from
Thracian and Roman times, the original folklore, customs, and the
specific national cuisine and beverages are a major attraction for
the foreign tourists. The resorts along the Black sea coast – Golden
Sands, Sunny Beach, Albena, Duni, Eleni, Sunny Day, Riviera, etc.,
are preferred for the summer vacation. For the fans of winter sports,
the mountain resorts Pamporovo, Borovetz and Bansko offer very good
conditions and competitive prices. It is worth mentioning that the
capital city Sofia is located very close to the Vitosha mountain,
where the skiers can find good recreation facilities only 30 min away
from the city center. Bulgaria has the unique Rose Valley near the
town of Kazanluk – a place world famous with the growing of roses
and the extraction of highest quality rose oil, used in the perfume
industry by the most prestigious companies. According to preliminary
data, the number of foreign tourists visited Bulgaria in 2000 is about
2.4 million (13% increase in comparison to 1999).
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