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UIS Commission on Physical Chemistry
and Hydrogeology of Karst


.International Workshop of UIS Commission on Physical Chemistry and Hydrogeology of Karst on:
“Cave Climate and Paleoclimate- Best Record of the Global Change”

Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 24- 27 September 2002

Location and climate
Bulgaria is situated in the Southeastern part of the Balkan Peninsula. The country’s population is 8.2 million and a territory of 110,912 sq.km, bordering Greece and Turkey to the South, Republic of Macedonia and Yugoslavia to the West. The river Danube separates it from Romania to the North. Its natural eastern border is the Black Sea. Bulgaria ranks fifteenth in size among the European countries. The climate is Continental - Mediterranean.

Stara Zagora is close enough and easily accessible by car from most European countries. Bus transportation will be arranged from Sofia city to St. Zagora on 23th and 24th September. Stara Zagora can be reached from Sofia by bus or train for 5$ and Starozagorsky Mineralni Bani (where is located the conference site and hotel) by bus for 0.5 $ from St. Zagora.

Attractions of Bulgaria
1. Pirin mountain karst (one of the world’s tickess, over 2000 m. thick)
2. Paleovolcanic karst of East Rodopa Mts.
3. Over 10 mountains + Black Sea in 111 000 sq. km.
4. Extremely high diversity of geological settings and climate in very small territory
5. Very interesting Archeological and Archeoastronomical findings and rock art in karst terrains.
6. Extremely friendly, intelligent and nice local population
7. Very cheep, rich, tasty and original kitchen

Temperature vary from 12- 30 deg. C.
Usually nice and dry Access Most major air companies fly to Sofia airport.


Bulgaria’s currency is Lev, plural Leva. One Lev is made up of 100 stotinki. EURO has been introduced in the country as an official European currency as of 1 January 2002.
1 USD = 2.219 Leva
1 CHF = 1.33577 Leva
1 GBP = 3.1566 Leva
1 EUR = 1.95583 Leva







Time zone
GMT +2; April - September GMT +3

Credit cards
In Bulgaria only cash is reliable way of payment. Checks require 1-month clearance time. Credit cards are accepted only in most expensive hotels. Do not rely on them!!!

Passport and Visa
Valid passports are required and an entry visa issued by an embassy or a consular of the Republic of Bulgaria. Citizens from Schengen countries and the USA are not required to hold an entry visa for a stay up to 90 calendar days. This applies also to nationals from countries with visa waiver agreements with Bulgaria. Please check with the nearest Bulgarian Embassy or Consular office.

Major foreign airline companies and Bulgarian Balkan Airlines link the country with the five continents. Some world air distances to Sofia from: London (3 hours), Moscow (2 hours), New York (14 hours) Paris (3 hours), Rome (2 hours), Tokyo (23 hours), Zurich (2 hours).

Tourism is one of the key sectors in Bulgaria due to the specific nature and climate of the country. Bulgaria offers diverse forms of tourism as health tourism, hunting and fishing, nautical tourism and cruising, congress tourism, etc. The abundance of mineral water springs in the interior of the country and near the sea and mountain resorts creates excellent conditions for the development of balneological tourism. The unique cultural and historical monuments, including the ones from Thracian and Roman times, the original folklore, customs, and the specific national cuisine and beverages are a major attraction for the foreign tourists. The resorts along the Black sea coast – Golden Sands, Sunny Beach, Albena, Duni, Eleni, Sunny Day, Riviera, etc., are preferred for the summer vacation. For the fans of winter sports, the mountain resorts Pamporovo, Borovetz and Bansko offer very good conditions and competitive prices. It is worth mentioning that the capital city Sofia is located very close to the Vitosha mountain, where the skiers can find good recreation facilities only 30 min away from the city center. Bulgaria has the unique Rose Valley near the town of Kazanluk – a place world famous with the growing of roses and the extraction of highest quality rose oil, used in the perfume industry by the most prestigious companies. According to preliminary data, the number of foreign tourists visited Bulgaria in 2000 is about 2.4 million (13% increase in comparison to 1999).


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